|name status||nomen provisorum|
This species has been widely misidentified as either Amanita volvata or A. peckiana in the past. In the field it is most often identifiable because of
staining reactions typical of the majority of species of section AmidellaThe reader is cautioned that identification of specimens of section Amidella in eastern North America without use of microscopy produces uncertain results as a rule.
|cap||The cap of Amanita pseudovolvata is 15 - 68 (-99) mm wide, subglobose then hemispheric, then convex (often with a slight umbo), then planoconvex, and occasionally finally depressed to concave. The cap may be tacky at first. Eventually it becomes subshiny to shiny. It is 0.5 - 5 ( 7.5) mm thick at the stem. The cap of A. pseudovolvata is dirty cream to off-white to white, and, at times, is darkest near the center. It occasionally stains faint pink or pinkish brown or sordid pink when cut or scratched, and always stains red-brown or brick in old wounds. The margin is usually short striate depending on conditions of growth and age of specimens, and is frequently noticeably striate just as cap expands from the volval sac. The cap margin is appendiculate with small bits of white fibrillose material that become red-brown or brick or clay color. The volval remnants on the cap are (1) parts of a thin, broken submembranous to felted or radially fibrillose layer (the inner layer of a complexly layered volva) or (2) merely radially fibrillose and easily removed scales, becoming smaller towards the margin. The volval material is originally white and quickly turns red-brown or brick, eventually drying to a pale pinkish beige. Occasionally a segment of the complete volva may remain on the cap as well as the parts of the innermost volval layer; when this happens, the collector will find this "all layer" fragment in the form of a whitish, leathery, membranous patch.|
|gills||The gills of Amanita pseudovolvata are free to narrowly attached, sometimes with a short to long decurrent line on the top of the stem, and close to crowded. They are whitish to off-white to pale cream to cream in mass, white to off-white in side-view, and bruise like the cap and the volval remnants on the cap. The cap margin is decorated with white flocculence that becomes red-brown or brick. The short gills of A. pseudovolvata are truncate to subtruncate to rounded truncate to subattenuate.|
|stem||The ringless stem measures 22 - 90 (-116) × 2.5 - 8.5 mm. It is whitish to faint cream or sordid pale cream, bruising red-brown or brick in old wounds, and decorated with white powder or flocculence that becomes red-brown to brick over time or with handling. The stem narrows upward or is cylindric. The bulbless stem becomes hollow in part with the stuffing occasionally yellowish and reminiscent of fine sawdust. The sack-like volva is subglobose to ovoid (sometimes with an extended limb on one side), 13 - 37 × 7 - 22 mm, whitish, soft, tough, leathery, usually dividing into two or three lobes, and layered (with most of inner layer left on cap).|
|odor/taste||Amanita pseudovolvata lacks an odor except sometimes in wet weather when it smells faintly fungoid or like freshly cleaned laundry. It does not have a taste.|
|spores||The spores measure (5.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.5) × (3.8-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-7.8) µm and are ellipsoid to elongate to cylindric and amyloid. Clamps are not to be found at bases of basidia.|
|discussion||—R. E. Tulloss|
|name status||nomen provisorum|
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The following material is based on original research of R. E. Tulloss.
|pileus||15 - 68 (-99) mm wide, white or whitish, sometimes cream over disk, sometimes (wet weather) rapidly bruising faint pink then fading, sometimes with red-brown or brick stains, red-brown or brick on edge of old wounds, tacky becoming subshiny to shiny, subglobose then hemispheric then convex (often with slight umbo) then planoconvex, occasionally finally depressed to convex; context 0.5 - 5 (-7.5) mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly or rapidly at first then evenly to margin, sometimes only a membrane over last few mm at margin, dirty cream to off-white to white, at times darkest near stipe, occasionally staining faint pink or pinkish brown or sordid pink, always red-brown or brick in old wounds; margin usually short striate ((0+R-) 0.1R - 0.2R (-0.4R)) depending on conditions of growth and age of specimens, frequently noticeably striate just as cap expands from volval sac, appendiculate with small bits of white fibrillose material becoming red-brown or brick or clay color; universal veil in thin broken submembranous to felted/radially fibrillose layer (inner layer of universal veil) or merely radially fibrillose scales becoming smaller towards margin, easily removed, originally white then quickly red-brown or brick (5YR 5/4 to 5YR 6/2 to 7.5YR 6/2-4 to a little browner than 7.5YR 7/4 or 5B3-4 to 6C6 to 7B2 to 7C4-5 to 8A2 to 8C-D5), eventually drying to a pale pinkish beige, occasionally also a whitish leathery membranous patch.|
|lamellae||free to narrowly adnate, sometimes with short to long decurrent line on stipe, close to subcrowded to crowded, whitish to off-white to pale cream to cream in mass, white to off-white in side-view, bruising as in pileus and universal veil on pileus, becoming red-brown or brick in wounds, sometimes light sordid buff in age, drying 3A2 to 2.5YR 4/6 to 5YR 4/6, 2 - 6.5 mm broad; margin decorated with white flocculence becoming red-brown or brick, sometimes extending slightly beyond pileus margin; lamellulae truncate to subtruncate to rounded truncate to subattenuate, occasionally with an attenuate tooth at pileus trama, of varying length, in one to many ranks, numerous—between almost every pair of lamellae.|
|stipe||22 - 90 (-116) × 2.5 - 8.5 mm, narrowing upward or cylindric, flaring slightly to broadly at apex, white becoming red-brown or brick in wounds, decorated with white pulverulence/flocculence becoming red-brown to brick; context whitish to faint cream or sordid pale cream, bruising as in pileus, red-brown or brick in old wounds, stuffed becoming hollow in part, stuffing occasionally yellowish and reminiscent of fine sawdust, central cylinder 1.5 - 3 (-5) mm wide, concolorous to red-brown or brick in larva tunnels; bulb lacking, stuffing material from stipe extends into lower portion of universal veil below point where stipe tissue ends; exannulate (from bud); universal veil as subglobose to ovoid sac, sometimes with extended limb on one side, 1- - 3 mm thick in upper portion, thicker (to 5 mm or more) in lower portion, interior off-white and sometimes with gelatinous appearance, 13 - 37 × 7 - 22 mm, whitish, soft, tough, leathery, usually dividing into two or three lobes, adnate for up to two-thirds of height, with fine hyphae holding soil to much of surface, layered with most of inner layer left on pileus; limbus internus rarely noticeable and then very small and about one-quarter to one-third of distance from point of limb attachment to tip of limb.|
|odor/taste||Odor lacking or mild or occasionally (wet weather) faintly fungoid or like freshly cleaned laundry. Tasteless.|
|Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - positive except in central cylinder and volval sac or limited to one or more of following regions: lamellae, central stipe, pileus context, upper portion of volval limb. Spot test for tyrosinase (??) - strongly positive throughout basidiocarp or occasionally negative in base of stipe or negatuve in universal veil tissue below base of stipe. Test vouchers: ??.|
|pileipellis||as very thin layer less than or equal to 5 hyphal diameters thick; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.2 - 4.0 µm wide, partially gelatinizing, branching, some with raised tips, interwoven, subradially arranged; vascular hyphae 1.5 - 4.0 µm wide, branching.|
|pileus context||filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0 - 6.0 µm wide, branching; acrophysalides plentiful, elongate to 165 × 20 µm; subglobose to ellipsoid (up to 75 × 50 µm), clavate (up to 65 × 28 µm); vascular hyphae up to 3.5 µm wide.|
|lamella trama||bilateral, divergent; with elements diverging from central stratum at about 45° angle then making smooth curve until at right angles with central stratum only within two or three short hyphal segments or small inflated cells of bases of basidia; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3.0 - 6.2 µm wide, inflated segments to 17.5 µm wide, branching; inflated cells subglobose (up to 57 × 52 µm), ovoid to narrowly clavate, sometimes in chains, frequently nonterminal (up to 62 × 26 µm); vascular hyphae up to 3.0 µm wide, branching; all elements thin-walled.|
|subhymenium||subramose to subcellular; consisting of branching, frequently septate, only slightly inflated hyphae, 3± µm wide and small, intercalary pyriform to subglobose cells or slightly inflated segments; basidia more frequently arising from hyphae than from expanded cells.|
|basidia||35 - 51 × 7.5 - 10.8 µm, clavate, 4-spored, rarely 1-spored, thin-walled, some orange in NH4OH; sterigmata to 10 µm long; no clamps observed.|
|universal veil||On stipe base, outer surface: gelatinizing; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3.5 - 5.6 µm wide, branching, disordered in outermost layer for up to 5 hyphal diameters thickness, then longitudinally oriented. On stipe base, inner surface: absent or as scattered small gelatinized inflated cells. On stipe base, interior: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.4 - 8.4 µm wide, longitudinally oriented, branching, at times in fascicles and occasionally with terminal segments inflated up to 25 µm wide; inflated cells locally plentiful, ellipsoid to elongate to cylindric to 130 × 60 µm, entwined by hyphae; vascular hyphae 1.7 - 2.8 µm wide. On pileus, inner surface: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.8 - 11.9 µm wide, partially gelatinizing, interwoven, disoriented, thickest segments sometimes clustered and short; vascular hyphae 4.5 - 9.8 µm wide. Other layers on pileus as on base of stipe.|
|stipe context||longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.5 - 6.2 µm wide, branching; acrophysalides up to 178 × 41 µm; vascular hyphae 1.8 - 3.0 µm wide, branching.|
|ecology||Solitary to subgregarious. Massachusetts: In mixed Pinus-Quercus woods or under Betula. Mississippi and Louisiana: In damp, river bottom land. New Jersey: In mixed deciduous woods including Quercus in sand, sandy loam or sandy clay. Texas: In mixed Pinus and deciduous forest in sandy soils. Virginia: Under Quercus alba and Carya glabra or in mixed forest of Quercus, Carya, and P. strobus.|
ONTARIO—Elgin Co. - SE Southwold, 6.viii.1932 Ferguson s.n. [J. Dearness 8152] (DAOM, as “Amanitopsis volvata”).
QUÉBEC—Région Montérégie - Mont-Saint-Hilaire, 10.ix.1993 Y. Lamoureux 2032 (CMMTL; RET 118-3).
ALABAMA—Baldwin Co. - Vaughn, 7.viii.1897 F. S. Earle s.n. (NYS, as “Amanitopsis volvatus” (sic)).
ARKANSAS—Pulaski Co. - Hensley, 13.ix.1991 Edith Nelson s.n. [Tulloss 9-13-91-EN1] (RET 028-5).
CONNECTICUT—New Haven Co. - Cheshire Twp., Sleeping Giant St. Pk. [41°26'02" N/ 72°53'03" W, 179 m], 23.vii.1992 NEMF ‘92 foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 7-23-92-A] (RET 066-4). New London Co. - Colchester, Day Pond St. Pk. [41°33'25" N/ 72°25'06" W, 134 m], 31.viii.1997 Diane Pruden s.n. [Tulloss 8-31-97-Ka] (RET 267-7); Pachaug St. For., Harris Rd., 5.viii.1988 Roy Watling 21178 [Tulloss 8-5-88-J] (E; RET ??). Tolland Co. - Gay City St. Pk. [41°43’23” N/ 72°26’38” W, 209 m], 31.viii.1997 R. E. Tulloss 8-31-97-E (RET 268-1), -F (RET 269-6). Windham Co. - Natchaug St. For., 31.viii.1997 Peter Katsaros s.n. [Tulloss 8-31-97-Kb] (RET 269-4).
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA—Washington, |
Note: See also RET 282-10, RET 363-8, RET 364-3, and RET 452-4.
|citations||—R. E. Tulloss and C. Rodríguez Caycedo|
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