2. Amanita sp-NW04, dark cells on lamellae margins, Lake Lagunita, Marin Co., California, U.S.A. (RET 868-8)
The following material is derived from original research of R. E. Tulloss and J. E. Lindgren.
The cap is 35 - 90 mm wide and pale brown to tannish-brown; it is lighter at the edge and darker over the center. It sometimes has a dark line encircling the cap on the inner edge of the cap's striations. The cap is bell-like at first then becomes convex. It is tacky when wet and satiny when dry. The cap's white flesh is 5 mm thick above the stem, and thins evenly to the cap's edge. The downward curved edge is striate and often spllits. Volval remnants are absent or, if present, are slightly membranous patches that are white at first, then become gray, and sometimes have rusty stains on their outer surface. They can also be present as yellowish flakes with upturned edges or as pyramid-like warts on white-gray patches.
The creamy white or yellowish gills are narrowly attached with a line descending on the upper stem. The gills become free from the stem with age and are somewhat distant. They brown slightly when bruised. The edges of the gills are not distinguishable by color but they may have minute decoration (use 10x lens). The sparse short gills are squarely cut off or cut off with a rounded corner and unevenly distributed.
The whitish stem is 100- - 120 x 6 - 10 mm and becomes gray when handled. The stem sometimes has pale gray to tan powder or minute cottony material at its top. It is decorated below with tan to pale brown fibers or cottony bands in a chevron-like pattern. The stem's white flesh is stuffed and has a gray tint near the surface. The flesh is unchanging when cut or bruised, but has a rust color were bugs have tunneled in it. The volva is sac-like; flared at first and often collapses against the stem. The sack occasionally has a zone in which the stipe surface is exposed between separated upper and lower parts of the sack (frequently appearing as though the exposed part of the stem had been forcibly stretched). The volva measures 50-60 mm from the base of the stem to the top of the sack. The sack is occasionally broken up into large patches and is white inside and out or white outside and pale orange-white inside. The sac sometimes has many orange-brown stains on the outside. The upper part of the sack is thick and may breaks free from the stem. A gray cottony portion of the volva may remain attached to the top of the cup like base of the sack.
Odor was mild or lacking. Taste was not recorded.
The spores measure (7.0-) 10.0 - 13.2 (-19.2) × (6.0-) 9.0 - 12.2 (-17.8) μm and are globose to subglobse to broadly ellipsoid and inamyloid. Clamps are absent from bases of basidia.
This species is found solitary, scattered, or grouped and is described from Canada under Pacific Silver Fir (Abies amabilis), Nootka Cypress (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Pacific Red Ceder (Tsuga plicata), and Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). It is also found in moss covered black soil under Pacific Silver Fir(Abies amabilis), Nootka Cypress, and Mountain Hemlock. This species was also collected in the U.S under Noble Fir (Abies procera); or in conifer litter under old growths of Hemlock (Tsuga) and Douglas Fir. The species was also found in very dry conifer litter with volcanic dust in a conifer-dominated forest under Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock (T. heterophylla), Red Alder (Alnus rubra), and Vine Maple (Acer circinatum) with an understory containing Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum
), Wood Sorrel (Oxalis), and Red Huckelberry ( Vaccinium parvifolium). The zone between the separated upper and lower parts of the volva is reminiscent of a similar zone in A. constricta.
—R. E. Tulloss, J. E. Lindgren, and N. Goldman
Tulloss & J. E. Lindgr.
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2.x.1991 J. E. Lindgren 91-30 (RET 084-3, haplotype 2)
L. V. Kudzma, Annandale, NJ
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from original research of R. E. Tulloss and J. E. Lindgren.
35 - 90 mm wide, pale brown to tannish brown to light golden brown to light orangish brown to light grayish brown over margin and darker over disc (for example brown to reddish brown to rich fulvous brown to fulvous to gray-brown to umbrinous brown), sometimes with dark line on inner edge of striae, ovoid to campanulate at first, then convex, with low umbo, tacky when wet, satiny when dry; context white, 5± mm thick at stipe, thinning evenly for about three-quarters of radius, then membranous to margin; margin striate to subtuberculate-striate to tuberculate-striate (0.35±R), often becoming rimose, decurved, nonappendiculate; universal veil absent or as submembranous patch or patches, white at first, becoming gray, sometimes with orange-brown or rusty stains on exterior surface, occasionally becoming areolate and then with pale tan to buff to brownish to ochraceous flakes with upturned edges or subpyramidal warts distributed over white or grayish patch.
narrowly adnate with decurrent line on stipe, becoming free in age, subdistant, white to creamy white or nearly yellowish to pale grayish buff, in exsiccata off-white to pale grayish white to pale brownish gray to brownish gray, slightly browning when bruised, not marginate or slightly so (brown-edged under 10× lens), with edges minutely fimbriate (10× lens), 4± mm broad; lamellulae truncate to rounded-truncate to subattenuate, unevenly and sparsely distributed.
??100 - 120 × 6 - 10 mm, with white or whitish ground, becoming grayish where handled, sometimes with pale gray to pale tan to buff pulverulence or flocculence near apex, below decorated with tannish brown to pale brown to brown to grayish brown to gray fibrils and/or floccose-fibrillose bands often in chevron-like pattern, narrowing upward; context stuffed, white (except for some gray tint near surface), unchanging when cut or bruised, rust colored in old larva tunnels; exannulate; universal veil as saccate volva, flaring at first, often collapsing on stipe, up to 50 - 60 mm from base of stipe to highest point of limb, occasionally with limbs broken up into large patches, occasionally with a strangulate zone as in A. constricta, dry, white inside and out at first or white on exterior and pale orangish-white on interior surface, with inner surface graying while exterior still white, lacking stains or with many orange-brown to brown to rusty stained spots on the exterior surface, with stains not fading on drying (retained in exsiccata), upper portions of limb often with sordid or pale grayish exterior surface in exsiccata, rather thick, may come cleanly away from stipe base, with floccose to cottony gray limbus internus somewhat suggestive of cothurnate volva of A. pantherina at base of flaring portion of limb and often exposed at upper rim of remaining cupulate volva in specimens having most of universal veil limb carried away on pileus.
Odor mild or lacking. Taste not recorded.
up to 135 µm thick, comprising two layers; suprapellis 7 to 17 µm thick, extensively gelatinized, colorless; subpellis brownish yellow to brownish orange; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.8 - 8.5 µm wide, branching, densely interwoven, many with subradial orientation; vascular hyphae very scarce, 9.2 - 11.0 µm wide, with irregular outline.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 5.8 - 15.0 µm wide, plentiful, dominant near pileipellis, without dominant orientation, criss-crossed interwoven, with some having subrefractive yellowish walls, often in fascicles except for those of larger diameter, with walls of those of larger diameter slightly thickened; acrophysalides plentiful, locally dominant away from pileipellis and lamellae, subglobose to subpyriform to ellipsoid to broadly clavate to broadly fusiform to narrowly clavate, up to 88 × 60 µm, with walls thin or slightly thickened (up to 0.5 µm thick); vascular hyphae not observed.
bilateral, divergent, with central stratum often difficult or impossible to rehydrate in material examined, with angle of divergence shallow or sometimes obscure, with all elements thin-walled; wcs = 50 - 60 (-80) µm; with subhymenial base containing occasional relatively large inflated cells immediately adjacent to central stratum (up to 53 × 29 µm, at angles of up to 60° or nearly 90° to central stratum), but largely comprised of frequently branching hyphae with uninflated or partially inflated segments; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 5.0 µm wide, branching, with intercalary subfusiform segments up to 16.5 µm wide; diverging, terminal, inflated cells not observed; vascular hyphae 2.8 - 6.0 µm wide, branching, sinuous, occasional to (infrequently) locally abundant.
wst-near = 15 - 35 (-40) µm; wst-far = 35 - 75 µm; with many inflated cells (ramose, ellipsoid, ovoid, with largest nearest to central stratum) and partially inflated cells (clavate, branched) and occasional uninflated short hyphal segments, with 3 to 5 cells between the bases of basidia/-oles and nearest edge of central stratum, with basidia arising from cells of all types (least frequently from uninflated hyphal segments), with 1/2 to 2 cells between the base of a short basidiole and the base of the longest nearby basidium/-ole.
(43-) 55 - 82 × 11.8 - 18.0 µm, thin-walled, dominantly 4-, but not uncommonly 2-, and occasionally 1-, sterigmate, with sterigmata up to 11.8 × 2.8 µm; clamps and proliferated clamps scattered to rare (less than a ten found in extensive search of on section from Lindgren 91-30).
On pileus: scant filamentous undifferentiated hyphae moderately frequently branching and collapsed and gelatinized inflated cells (not visible to naked eye). On stipe base, exterior surface layer: as thin layer of filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae in fascicles, gelatinized, sublongitudinally arranged. On stipe base interior and inner surfaces: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 11.0 µm wide, branching, plentiful, often in fascicles, loosely interwoven around inflated cells, with some having slightly thickened walls; inflated cells globose or subglobose (up to 55 × 54 µm, with wall up to 0.8 µm thick) to ovoid or ellipsoid (up to 45 × 35 µm, with wall up to 1.0 µm thick) to peanut shaped or irregularly subfusiform (up to 64 × 31 µm, with wall up to 1.0 µm thick at least at apex), with wall rarely thinner than 0.5 µm thick, faintly sordid to pale brown in mature material, plentiful to locally dominant (in clusters); vascular hyphae not observed.
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.2 - 11.0 µm wide, branching, plentiful; acrophysalides plentiful, up to 200 × 42 µm, thin-walled or with wall up to 1.0 µm thick; vascular hyphae 7.0 - 10.5 µm wide, scarce, sinuous, with irregular outline.
[260/13/8] (7.0-) 10.0 - 13.2 (-19.2) × (6.0-) 9.0 -
12.2 (-17.8) µm, (L = 10.8 - 12.3 (-12.8) µm;
L’ = 11.5 µm; W = 9.9 - 11.2 (-12.0) µm;
W’ = 10.7 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.17 (-1.25);
Q = 1.07 - 1.11 (-1.12); Q’ = 1.09),
hyaline, colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid,
globose to subglobse to broadly ellipsoid,
occasionally lachrimiform (?on basidiocarps apparently
just beginning sporulation), often at least somewhat
adaxially flattened, sometimes expanded at one end;
apiculus sublateral to lateral, sometimes
rather stubby, truncate-conic to cylindric;
contents mono- to multiguttulate to granular;
white in deposit.
Solitary to subgregarious to gregarious to
scattered. Canada: At 850 - 1200±
m elev. Under Abies amabilis, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Pseudotsuga menziesii,
Thuja plicata, and Tsuga mertensiana;
or in moss-covered, black soil under A.
amabilis, C. nootkatensis, and T.
mertensiana; or with the immediately preceding
plants and Thuja plicata, Menziesia
ferruginea, and Vaccinium alaskense; or
under A. amabilis, C. nootkatensis,
Th. plicata, and T. mertensiana with
occasional Ps. menziesii. Oregon and
Washington: At 1190± - 1850 m
elevation. Under Abies procera (Noble
Fir); or in conifer duff under old growth Tsuga
and Ps. menziesii; or in very dry conifer
duff with volcanic dust in conifer dominated
forest under Ps. menziesii, Tsuga
heterophylla, Alnus rubra, Acer
circinatum with understory including
Polystichum munitum (sword fern),
Oxalis, and Vaccinium parvifolium
(red huckleberry). California: At
65± m elev. Associated with
10-year-old Pinus muricata.
District - Meager Mtn., upper Meager Crk. above
Devastation Crk., 2.ix.1989 Paul Kroeger PK1406 (in
herb. P. Kroeger). Greater Vancouver Regional
District - North Vancouver, Mt. Seymour,
Paul Kroeger PK1600 (in herb. P. Kroeger),
herb. P. Kroeger), 23.viii.1992 Paul Kroeger
(in herb. P. Kroeger), PK1606 (in herb. P.
CALIFORNIA—Marin Co. - MMWD, Lake Lagunita,
7.vi.2019 Ronald L. Pastorino 6-6-19F [mushroomobserver
(RET 868-8, nrITS-LSU seq'd.);
Reyes Nat. Seashore, large intermediate island
located near Glenbrook Tr. off of Muddy Hollow
parking lot [38.0519° N/ 122.8741667° W,
65 m], 27.xii.2005 Kabir G. Peay KGB69
- Mt. Baker Nat. For., above Baker Lk., near Rainbow
Falls, 22.ix.1991 Buck McAdoo 193#17 (RET
050-1). Skamania Co. - GPNF, Rd 5701
ca. Siouxon Crk., 2.x.1991 J. E. Lindgren 91-30
(RET 084-3, nrITS seq'd.).
Thurston Co. - Olympia, 48th Way NW [47.104° E/
123.035° W, 41 m], 2.xi.2018 Ellen Rice & Sally
Bennett s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 847-5, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
The descriptions accompanying some of the material we
reviewed suggests to us that the specie has often been
mis-identified in the field as A.
Lindgren 91-35 (RET 084-2) collected at Cascade
Head, Tillamook Co., Oregon, is apparently an
immature specimen of this species (based on colors,
habit, volva staining, discoloring of lamellae,
and anatomical examination of the most mature part
of the lamellae). It is interesting to note
that even the lamellae of a “button” of this
species may become brownish gray on drying.
Moreover, we note that
rusty stains both on the universal veil and in
gray interior surface of the universal
were present prior to sporulation in this
Peay KGP69 is known to us only from its nrITS
sequence (GenBank DQ822792).
This species has been called “Amanita sp.
NW4” by RET in correspondence and in regional
—R. E. Tulloss and J. E. Lindgren
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