The cap is 43 - 80 mm wide, more orange or orange-tan than fulvous except (often) in the center, with color saturation varying from pallid to moderately intense, becoming slightly sordid with age. Cap margin striate. Volva almost always absent from cap.
The gills are free, close, pale orangish cream to cream in mass, white to off-white to cream (older material) in side view, not changing when cut or bruised, 5.5 - 6 mm broad. The short gills are truncate or truncate with attenuate tooth along underside of pileus or subtruncate or infrequently subattenuate, of diverse lengths, unevenly distributed, usually plentiful, but sometimes very sparse on some caps.
The stem is entirely velvety (drying to satiny) or decorated with felted to flocculose fragments of anorangish white to orange, subfelted to felted, internal limb of the volva. This internal limb is attached to the exterior of the volva at the point at which the volva is attached to the stem. The exterior surface of the volva liable to intense red- or orange-brown staining.
The spores measure (9.8-) 10.5 - 13.1 (-14.3) × (9.1-) 9.7 - 12.0 (-14.0) µm and are globose to subglobose (infrequently broadly ellipsoid) and inamyloid. Clamp information t.b.d.
Presently known from the Providence of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where it has been found both on the Island of Newfoundland and in southeastern Labrador with Abies balsamea and Betula papyrifera, sometimes with
Picea glauca in addition.
This species was formerly known in these pages as
A. daimonioctantes in these pages; however,
independent genetic studies by Dr. Landry (Mycol.
Soc. Québec) and the present authors, have that the
North American material is likely to belong this
well-established species known from Eurasia.
Sometimes an accidental event in nature performs
a very useful dissection on behalf of the
taxonomist: In the images 2 and 3, above, much of
the volval limb was pulled from the stem base during
expansion of the fruiting body, one end of the
limbus internus remained attached to the part of the
limb that was ripped upward. In consequence,
note the silky underside of the membrane that
continues to connect a line on the inside of the
displaced volva to a point at about midstipe
(image 2). The upper side of the membranous
connection (image 3) bears friable bits of
orangish white limbus internus.—R. E. Tulloss
and L. V. Kudzma
Tulloss nom. prov.
"Fulvous Ringless Amanita"
fulvus, fulvous, the color of the mane of a lion
Due to delays in data processing at GenBank, some accession numbers may lead to unreleased (pending) pages.
These pages will eventually be made live, so try again later.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following is based upon
original research by R. E. Tulloss.
43 - 84 mm wide, pale orangish tan (Pale Ochraceus
Buff to slightly browner than Ochraceus Buff, sometimes
becoming sordid or faintly tinted with olivaceous after
collecting, e.g., about 5B4) with disc concolorous or
fulvous to red-brown to warm brown (paler than 8F8
or ca. 2.5YR
2.5/4 or ca. 7.5YR 3/4), with portion outside disc sometimes becoming
pale sordid tan with age, with apparent tendency to
decolor in sunlight, campanulate at first then
plano-convex to planar, eventually with margin flaring
upward, umbonate, shiny to subshiny to waxy when
fresh, dull when dried in situ; context
3.5 - 4.5 mm thick, off-white, sometimes pale
orangish-white under pileipellis, not changing when
cut or bruised, narrowing to about 1 mm at
mid-radius then evenly to margin or evenly for about
two-thirds radius and then membranous to margin;
margin striate (0.20R - 0.35R (-0.4R)),
decurved, nonappendiculate; universal veil
free, sometimes with faint decurrent line on stipe
apex (10× lens), close, pale orangish cream to cream
to tan with orangish tint
in mass, white to off-white to cream (older material)
in side view, not changing when cut or bruised, 5.5 -
7 mm broad, broadest at (0.5-) 0.8 of radius, palely
marginate (pale orange to pale brownish to palely
concolorous with pileus);
lamellulae truncate (infrequently rounded
truncate) or truncate with attenuate tooth along
underside of pileus or subtruncate or infrequently
subattenuate, sometimes at stipe as well as
at pileus margin, of diverse lengths, unevenly
distributed, usually plentiful, but sometimes absent
for significant portion of pileus circumference
(in Tulloss 10-1-03-A having only 8 lamellulae on
99 - 147 × 8.5 - 11.5 mm, if not entirely white, often
white in upper 20± mm, otherwise palely concolorous
with region of pileus excluding disc, pale orange
to pale orange-brown, sometimes becoming slightly
sordid from handling, narrowing upward, more or less
flaring at apex, sometimes decorated with scattered
raised fibrils after handling, sometimes with pale
orange to pale orange-brown irregular pieces of
limbus internus distributed over colored
portion above volval limb, sometimes decorated with
scattered raised fibrils after handling, sometimes
with pale orange to pale orange-brown irregular
pieces of limbus internus appressed to lower
stipe above volva, eventually with felted region
becoming satiny and longitudinally striatulate as in
material originally lacking felted region;
exannulate; context off-white, not
changing when cut or bruised, stuffed with densely
packed white fibrillose material (not notably
longitudinally oriented, at least in upper third of
stipe) or stuffed in upper third and hollow below
or hollow with sparse cottony cross-walls in
otherwise hollow parts, with central cylinder
4 - 5.5 mm wide, with insect damaged areas absent
or concolorous or (rarely) orange-brown in upper
central cylinder (Tulloss 8-30-97-D);
universal veil as saccate
volva, membranous, with smooth surfaces (rarely
with dimpled area of upper external surface of
limb), white with rusty spots or stains (sometimes
extensive) on exterior surface, pale orangish white
to pale fulvus on inner surface, 28 - 38 × 13 - 17
mm, < 1 mm thick at midpoint between top and
point of attachment to stipe, eventually collapsing
on stipe, having pronounced felted cream to pale
orangish cream limbus internus [markedly
elongate (up to 4.5± mm long), markedly thickened,
or both] with upper edge becoming more distinctly
orange in older material.
Odor not notable or faintly fungal; tasteless with a crisp texture.
Syringaldazine spot test for laccase - immediately
positive strongly on exterior of volval sac (soon
fading and gone in 5 minutes), immediately weakly
positive in narrow horizontal layer 1 -2 mm above
stipe base (slowly fading, persisting for 14-15 min.),
strongly positive in dot at very base of stipe after
10-11 min (stil strongly persisting after 9 min.,
strong dot on exterior of sac appearing after 12-13
min. (fading nearly completely after 6 min.).
Voucher for macrochemical tests: Tulloss 9-3-05-E.
140 - 145 µm thick at mid-radius; suprapellis colorless and gelatinized at surface, 25 - 35 µm thick; subpellis ungelatinized, orange to brownish orange, 105 - 120 µm thick; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.4 - 15.2 µm wide, loosely interwoven (pileus context sometimes visible in gaps at mid-radius, not so over disc) and irregularly oriented mixed with subradially oriented hyphae (in mass or in distinct fascicles), branching, sometimes constricted at septa, sometimes with narrowly clavate tip cells; vascular hyphae 2.1 - 10.5 µm wide, sinuous, sordid yellow, scattered, rather common, often appearing ungelatinized in suprapellis.
BASIDIA: 51 - 75 × 15.0 - 16.0 µm, dominantly 4-, infrequently 2-sterimate, with sterigmata up to 9.2 × 4.6 µm; clamps ??probably absent??.
On pileus: absent.
At stipe base exterior surface layer: ??.
At stipe base, interior: filamentous undifferenitated hyphae ??; inflated cells with walls up to 1.4 mm thick, ??; vascular hyphae ??; clamps absent.
At stipe base, inner surface layer: ??.
STIPE CONTEXT: longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous undifferentiated hyphae 2.4 - 5.2 µm wide, plentiful to dominant in interior, dominant at surface, dominantly longitudinally oriented, ??; acrophysalides up to 120± × 26 µm, common in interior, infrequent near surface, thin-walled, ??; vascular hyphae 3.8 - 12.6 µm wide, locally common although generally scattered, subsinuous.
lamella edge tissue
inflated cells globose to subglobose to pyriform to broadly clavate to clavate, up to 43 × 22 µm, thin-walled, becoming gelatinized with age, in up to five layers below a fascicle of filamentous undifferentiated hyphae running along gill edge.
[75/4/4] 9.8 - 13.0 (-14.3) × (8.4-) 9.1 -
12.0 (-14.0) µm, (L = 10.7 - 12.0 µm;
L’ = 11.4 µm; W = 9.8 - 11.1 µm;
W’ = 10.5 µm; Q = (1.02-) 1.05 - 1.14 (-1.21);
Q = 1.07 - 1.10; Q’ = 1.08), hyaline,
colorless, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, adaxially
flattened, globose to subglobose; apiculus
cylindric, sometimes proportionately rather large;
contents mono- to multiguttulate; color in
Scattered to solitary, sometimes in small
Canada,Island of Newfoundland: In moss-covered wet loam
and duff in forests of Abies balsamea and
Betula papyrifera, and sometimes with
Picea glauca in addition. Proportions
of these trees vary from site to site.
U.S.A.: At 8 - 1590 m elev. Connecticut:
Solitary. In dark loam and leaf litter of
mixed woods including Quercus, Acer,
Tsuga canadensis, and Pinus.
Louisiana: With Quercus.
North Carolina: In mixed hardwoods (Quercus,
Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya,
Acer, Fagus grandifolia, and
Liquidambar styraciflus) with Pinus
Pennsylvania: In mixed forest
with Betula, Quercus, and
Vermont: in mixed woods dominated by Betula,
Acer, Fraxinus, and T.
CANADA: NEWFOUNDLAND &
LABRADOR—Isl. of Newfoundland -
Falls Tr., 3.ix.2005 Newfoundland foray participant
s.n. [Tulloss 9-3-05-E] (RET 389-2, nrITS seq'd.);
Corner Brook, Humber Village, Voitk prop.,
5.ix.2003 Andrus Voitk s.n. (RET 372-2,
Gros Morne Nat. Pk., Berry Head Pond Tr., 31.xiii.2005 Vello Soots
& Pat Burchell s.n. [Tulloss 8-31-05-A]
GMNP, lower Green Garden Tr., 29.viii.2003 Andrus
Voitk s.n. (RET 372-1, nrITS seq'd.), Andrus Voitk
s.n. (RET 371-9, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
GMNP, Killdevil Anglican Church Camp, near lab,
19.ix.2004 Noah Siegel & R. E. Tulloss [Tulloss
9-19-04-A] (RET 384-2);
GMNP, Killdevil Anglican Church Camp,
tr. to Lomond R. [49.4481° N/ 57.7519° W, 29 m],
1.x.2003 K. Kalaméés s.n. [Tulloss 10-1-03-A]
(RET 371-3, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.);
Stanleyville, tr. from Lomond R. picnic area,
13.ix.2004 R. E. Tulloss 9-13-04-C (RET 383-8,
nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.); GMNP, Southeast Brook,
0.5 km off Rte. 431, 3.ix.2005 B. Sparling s.n. (RET
388-2, nrLSU seq'd.); GMNP, Stuckless Pond Tr.,
15.ix.2004 Maria Voitk s.n. [Tulloss 9-15-04-B]
(RET 384-4, nrITS seq'd.); GMNP, Western Brook Pond, 27.ix.2003 Andrus
Voitk s.n. [Tulloss 9-27-03-B] (RET 370-8, nrITS
& nrLSU seq'd.); GMNP, Western Brook Pond
Tr., at crossroads, 16.ix.2004 Maria Voitk &
Judy May s.n. [Tulloss 9-16-04-A] (RET
??); GMNP, unkn. loc., 19.ix.2004 Noah
Siegel s.n. (RET 625-6, nrITS seq'd.). St.
John Island, 4.viii.2003 Andrus Voitk #2
(RET 369-3, nrIT-LSU seq'd.).
Labrador - Labrador Straits area, Newfoundland
& Labrador Foray 2005 walk #8, 8.ix.2005 M.
Wright s.n. [Tulloss 9-8-05-A] (RET 387-3).
NEW BRUNSWICK—Charlotte Co. -
Campobello Isl., woods on tr. to Liberty Pt.
[44.8308º N/ 66.9308º W, 21 m], 24.ix.2016 Michaeline
Mulvey s.n. [Tulloss 9-24-16-I] (RET 737-8,
CONNECTICUT—Middlesex Co. - Salmon River
St. For. (South) [41°32’58” N/ 72°27’01” W, 21 m],
30.viii.1997 COMA foray participant s.n.
[Tulloss 8-30-97-D] (RET 269-3, nrITS seq'd.).
LOUISIANA—East Baton Rouge Parish, Baton
Rouge [30.4415° N/ 91.1087° W, 14 m], 9.xi.2018 Logan
Wiedenfeld s.n. [mushroomobserver
central city [30.5557° N/ 91.0355° W, 22 m elev.],
18.xii.2014 L. Wiedenfeld s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 667-4, nrITS
MINNESOTA—St. Louis Co - Winton, Hubachek
Wilderness Res. Ctr. , 14.ix.2019 Tyler R. Pieper
TRP 129 (RET 879-9, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
Washington Co. - Marine on St. Croix, Lee &
Rose Warner Nature Center
[45.1726° N / 92.8320° W, 307 m], 20.ix.2010 Anna
Gerenday 20575 (RET 608-1, nrITS seq'd.).
NEW JERSEY—Burlington Co. - ca.
Chatsworth, Franklin Parker Preserve, 30.x.2010
Nina Burghardt et al. s.n. (RET 581-2, nrITS & nrLSU
For. [39.777° N / 74.6305° W, 22 m], 19.x.2012
Igor Safonov s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 555-7, nrITS seq'd.); 15.ix.2014 Luke Smithson
(RET 661-2); 29.ix.2014 Luke Smithson s.n.
(RET 661-6, nrLSU seq'd.).
Cape May Co. - Belleplain St.
For. [39.2477° N/ 74.8583° W, 8 m], 8.xi.2015 NJMA
foray participant s.n. [Tulloss 11-8-15-B]
(RET 714-10, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
Monmouth Co. -
Millstone Twp., 14 Fox Hill Rd., 12.ix.1999 R. E.
Tulloss 9-12-99-A (RET 300-9, nrITS & nrLSU
seq'd.); Roosevelt, Block 7, Lot 10.01
[40°12’49” N/ 74°28’19” W, 70-105 m], 22.ix.1999
Tulloss 9-22-99-AE (RET 303-3, nrITS
NEW YORK—Franklin Co. -
Bloomingdale Bog, 12.viii.2011 John Burghardt s.n.
[Tulloss 8-12-11-B] (RET 479-9, nrLSU seq'd.).
Madison Co. - unkn. loc.,
11.ix.2010 Eric Smith s.n. [mushroomobserver.org
(RET 482-2, nrITS seq'd.).
NORTH CAROLINA—Wake Co. - Raleigh, Umstead
St. Pk. [35.8675° N/ 78.7523° W, 118 m]. 18.x.2018 Geoff Balme s.n.
(RET 876-1, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
Yancey Co. -Mt. Mitchell St. Pk., Mt. Mitchell,
20.viii.2016 Joe &
Carola Kanapka s.n. [RET 8-20-16-D] (RET 733-6,
PENNSYLVANIA—Adams Co. - Michaux St.
For., 25.vii.2015 David Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 706-1, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.), s.n.
(RET 706-2, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
Allegheny Co. - North Park,
16.ix.2006 Western Pa. Mushroom Club member s.n.
[Tulloss 9-16-06-A] (RET 395-1, nrITS seq'd.).
Berks Co. - Hawk Mtn. Sanctuary, 8.ix.1996 Joseph
A. Lankalis s.n. (RET 259-2, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
Cumberland Co. - Pine Grove Furnace St. Pk.
[40.0434° N/ 77.2615° W, 227 m],
25.vii.2015 D. Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 706-7, nrITS seq'd.).
Luzerne Co. - Ricketts Glen St. Pk. [41.3036° N/
76.2740° W, 400-600 m], 7.ix.2014 D. Wasilewski s.n.
(RET 655-6, nrITS-LSU seq'd.),
26.vi.2015 D. Wasilewski s.n.
(RET 707-10, nrITS-LSU seq'd.);
unkn. loc., summer.2006
David Wasilewski s.n. (RET 398-10, nrITS-LSU
Seven Tubs Natural Area [41.2334° N/
75.8131° W, 300-350 m], 17.vii.2015 D. Wasilewski
(RET 706-3, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
Sullivan Co. - Lake
John [41.431° N/ 76.272° W, 700 m], 20.vii.2014
Dave Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 643-7, nrITS & nrLSU
TENNESSEE—Sevier Co. - ca. Gatlinburg,
Great Smoky Mtns. Nat. Pk., Alum Cave trailhead
[35°37'48” N/ 83°27'04” W], 13.vii.2004
David P. Lewis s.n. [Tulloss
7-13-04-F] (RET 378-8, nrITS seq'd.); ca. Gatlinburg,
GSMNP, Indian Gap [35.36094° N/ 83.4386° W],
13.vii.2004 J. Cifuentes s.n. [Tulloss 7-13-04-E]
(RET 376-6, nrITS seq'd.).
VERMONT—Lamoille Co. - Wolcott
[44.5308° N/ 72.5047° W, 395 m], 15.viii.2014 D.
Wasilewski s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 653-8, nrITS-LSU seq'd.).
WISCONSIN—Brown Co. - unkn. loc.
[44.666° N/ 88.0515° W, 188 m], 23.viii.2014 Britt
Bunyard s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 670-9, nrITS seq'd.).
Florence Co. - Lost Lake,
Assessor's Tr. [45.8672° N/ 88.3712° W, 405 m],
24.vii.2015 Britt Bunyard s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 725-9, nrITS &nrLSU seq'd.).
Forest Co. - Giant Pine Wilderness Tr.
[45.7910° N/ 88.9768° W, 510 m], 24.vii.2015 Britt
Bunyard s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 725-3, nrITS seq'd.).
Tr. [45.7632° N/ 88.9444° W, 507 m], 24.vii.2015 Britt
Bunyard s.n. [mushroomobserver
(RET 725-5, nrITS & nrLSU seq'd.).
On this site, A. fulva from Newfoundland
has been called "Amanita
daimonioctantes" in the past,
because of differences from European
specimens of A. fulva in at least the
a usually paler pileus
a proportionately larger and felted
(rather than membranous) limbus internus of
the universal veil connected to the main volval limb
at its base instead of connected to the inner
surface of the main limb some distance above its
a very shallow cellular subhymenium
inflated cells in the universal veil with thickened
a distinct gelatinized suprapellis of the
vascular hyphae that are rather common in the
Occasionally, the upper stipe (rather than the
lower stipe) of Eurasian A. fulva may have a
flocculence. This is known from robust
basidiomes and appears to occur when much of the
mass of inflated cells that allow separation of
lamellae edges from the stipe are deposited on the
latter during expansion of the fruiting body.
Hence, this stipe decoration is different from that
in the present North American population both in
origin during development and in ultimate position
on the stipe.
A felted limbus internus is a common
character in stirpes Caesarea and
Hemibapha of Amanita subsect.
Caesareae. In these species (e.g.,
A. caesarea (Scop.) Pers. and A.
jacksonii Pomerl.), the ragged, colored material
that decorates the stipes originates from a felted
extension of a short membranous to fleshy limbus
A comparison of the sporographs of the North American
and Eurasian populations of A. fulva are
On the other hand the Eurasian and North American
populations of what is herein called
A. fulva form a cluster in
a single gene nrITS phylogeny with moderately good
support (ca. 85%). In the past this has been
considered to be sufficient support for calling the
cluster a clade. At present, the trend is to
require 95% support. One of the reasons for
lowered support may be failure of the nrDNA to have
homogenized in the present taxon. Another may be the
observed tendency for single-character repeats to
have variable lengths. (The presently available
nrITS sequence from RET 384-3 is a particularly
egregious case of the latter.)
The temporary codes "A. sp-amerifulva01" and
"A. sp-N45" were
employed for a group of
North American collections that are now
merged within Amanita fulva.
Note: In brief,
nrLSU and RPB2 phylogenies produce the same results
as the nrITS phylogeny and increase the support for
calling the North American material "fulva."
This description is very much a draft and more
microscopy needs to be done.—R. E. Tulloss and L. V.
Information to support the viewer in reading the content of "technical" tabs
can be found here.
"Fulvous Ringless Amanita"
1. Amanita sp-NFL07, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
2. Amanita sp-NFL07, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
3. Amanita sp-NFL07, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
4. Amanita fulva, Pine Grove Furnace St. Pk., Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania, U.S.A. (RET 706-7)
RET - (1-3) Kill Devil Church Camp, Island of
Newfoundland, Prov. Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.
David Wasilewski - (4) Pine Grove Furnace State Park,
Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A..
(RET 706-7). [Note: Original, untrimmed
photographs will be found
(5) Seven Tubs Natural Area, Luzerne County,
Pennsylvania, U.S.A.. (RET 706-3).
[Note: Original, untrimmed photographs will be found
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.