1. Amanita fuligineodisca, Cordillera Talamanca, Costa Rica.
The cap of Amanita fuligineodisca is usually free of
volval remnants, 20 - 70 (-120) mm wide, umbonate at
maturity, with a strongly striate margin; it is dark
orange-brown, paler at the margin, and darker (even very dark brown) in the center;
infrequently, the entire cap may be paler than just described.
Gills are free to very
narrowly adnate, close to subdistant, white to whitish to
buff in mass, and 4 - 8 mm broad, not or rarely marginate
and then having edge concolorous with cap; gills are
truncate, of varying length, adjacent to margin or stem or neither.
The stem is 70 - 150 (-180) × 3 - 14 (-25) mm, predominantly white, and
exannulate, with a membranous sack-like volva at the
base. Both the internal and external surfaces of the up
to 40 mm high volval sack commonly take on orange-brown
or rusty stains.
The spores measure (7.5-)
9.0 - 12.0 (-15.5) × (6.5-) 8.4 - 11.2 (-15.0) µm and
are globose to subglobose (occasionally broadly
ellipsoid) and inamyloid. Clamps are not present at bases
Amanita fuligineodisca is
known from Honduras to Andean Colombia, occurring with oak.
Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling. 1992. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 66: 10, figs. 6-7, 30.
"Mesoamerican Orange-Brown Ringless Amanita"
fuligineus "fuliginous" or "fuligineous" (i.e., very dark brown) + disca "disc" (i.e., the fleshy center of an agaric's pileus or the surface of that area of an agaric's pilesu); "very dark brown disc"
[Note: Dr. Bas warned me that the name would be inappropriate because I would find that the pileus would sometimes be quite pallid. From nearly half the world away, he was quite right. There are enough amanitas with color names. Mycological taxonomists need to get more creative.—RET]
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HUA; isotype, NY
The following text may make multiple use of each data field.
The field may contain magenta text presenting data from a type study
and/or revision of other original material cited in the protolog of the present taxon.
Macroscopic descriptions in magenta are a combination of data from the protolog and
additional observations made on the exiccata during revision of the cited original
The same field may also contain black text, which is data from a revision of the present
taxon (including non-type material and/or material not cited in the protolog).
Paragraphs of black text will be labeled if further subdivision of
this text is appropriate.
Olive text indicates a specimen that has not been
thoroughly examined (for example, for microscopic details) and marks other places in the text
where data is missing or uncertain.
The following material is derived from the protolog of the present species and additional original research of R. E. Tulloss.
20 - 70 (-120) mm wide, dark brown to dark reddish brown (including 5F8 to 6F4-5 to 6F7-8 to to 7D8 to 7E5-6 to 7F7-8) to dark fulvous or orange-brown (including 6E6 to 6-7E8) or nearly black at disc (including 8F4), at times paler (including 5B2-4 to 5D3 to 5F4 to 6C4-5 to somewhat darker than 6C6-8 to 6D4-6 to 6C-D7 to 6E6) or fulvous toward margin or (infrequently) overall, rarely with olivaceous tint to the dark browns (Mueller 4612), convex when young, planar to depressed in age, with slight umbo, at times appearing faintly fibrillose, subviscid to viscid when moist; context white, unchanging when cut, 2 - 6 mm thick, thinning evenly to midradius, then membranous to margin; margin plicate-striate (0.25R - 0.65R), nonappendiculate, at times becoming rimose; universal veil almost always absent, but occasionally present as membranous patches concolorous with saccate volva at stipe base.
free to very narrowly adnate, close to subdistant, white to whitish to buff, becoming sordid tan to sordid brownish (4A4 to 5-7.5YR 4/6 to 7.5YR 6/6 to 6D4) on drying, 4 - 8 mm broad, not or rarely marginate and then having edge concolorous with pileus; lamellulae truncate, of varying lengths (up to 3 or more), sometimes sparse, unevenly distributed.
70 - 150 (-180) × 3 - 14 (-25) mm, fulvous or creamy above and white below or entirely white or whitish with fulvous orange or grayish tones after handling (including near 5A-B2-3 to slightly darker than 5A2), tapering upward, fibrillose (with 10× lens) or with somewhat darkened (brownish) fibrils; context white, sometimes bruising light pinkish brown, becoming hollow, with central cylinder up to 60% of stipe diameter; exannulate; universal veil saccate, white to light buff to buff to pale orangish white (5-6A2), often with pinkish orange-brown to orange-fulvous to ochraceous brown to reddish orange-brown to rather dark brown stains, sometimes becoming completely orange-brown (5B5 to 6A3 to less orange than 6B6-7) in age, up to 40 mm or more long, adpressed at base of stipe (as in A. fulva), free above.
[Note: No description of limbus internus of volva??]
Odor lacking or indistinct to fungoid. Taste not recorded.
Spot test for laccase (syringaldazine) - negative. Spot test for tyrosinase (paracresol) - positive throughout basidiome or only in stipe context. Test vouchers: Franco-M. 427, 444, 1103.
filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 13.2 µm wide, branching; acrophysalides thin-walled, terminal, broadly ovoid to ovoid to pyriform (up to 90 × 72 µm) or elongate (up to 182 × 39 µm); vascular hyphae 1.5 - 5.0 µm wide.
wcs = (25-) 35 - 65 µm; bilateral, at times obscurely so, dominated by the interwoven hyphae of central stratum and branching hyphae of subhymenium and subhymenial base with segments running parallel to central stratum; subhymenial base having inflated cells elongate to broadly fusiform to ellipsoid (up to 81 × 36 µm) mostly parallel to central stratum or at angle of 30° or less to central stratum and with some having walls slightly thickened (rarely to 0.8 µm thick); filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 1.0 - 13.0 µm wide, branching; divergent, terminal inflated cells occasional and then similar to inflated and partially inflated elements of subhymenial base and central stratum; vascular hyphae 1.5 - 9.0 µm wide, branching, occasionally locally tangled in knots.
wst-near = (5-) 25 - 65 µm; wst-far = (25-) 35 - 80 (-85) µm; comprising layer one to three cells deep of globose cells (mostly under 12.0 µm wide, but as large as 25 × 23 µm) and ellipsoid to ovoid cells (up to 25 × 15 µm); basidia arise from these cells or from sides (not tips) of slightly inflated terminal segments of hyphae running roughly parallel to central stratum.
37 - 73 × 11.8 - 19.5 µm, dominantly 4-, occasionally 2-, rarely 1- or 3-sterigmate, thin-walled; sterigmata up to 9.3 × 2.5 µm; clamps not observed.
On stipe base, external surface: filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3.8 - 14.0 µm wide, loosely interwoven, without obvious orientation, slightly gelatinizing, branching, at times in gelatinizing fascicles; inflated cells scarce (e.g., 50 × 39 µm); vascular hyphae 2.6 - 6.4 µm wide. On stipe base, interior: branching filamentous hyphae 2.6 - 14.3 µm wide, dominant, in loose tangle; inflated cells plentiful (more so at greater distance from either surface), thin-walled, subglobose to ovoid or ellipsoid (up to 81 × 60 µm) or clavate (up to 62 × 27 µm); vascular hyphae 3.0± µm wide. On stipe base, inner surface: slightly gelatinizing, otherwise very like interior, with greater dominance of more tightly interwoven filamentous hyphae; vascular hyphae 4.0± µm wide. On pileus: absent
longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous undifferentiated hyphae 2.0 - 7.0 µm wide, branching; acrophysalides up to 200 × 38 µm, thin-walled; vascular hyphae 6.5± µm wide, not common.
lamella edge tissue
inflated cells in one to two (to three?) layers, soon collapsing, partially gelatinizing, up to 39 × 27 µm, terminal on partially gelatinizing filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae or separated, with such hyphae common among these cells and dominantly running periclinal to lamella edge.
composite from all material examined by Tulloss: [959/48/28] (7.5-) 9.0 - 12.0 (-15.5) × (6.5-) 8.4 - 11.2 (-15.0) µm, (L = (9.5-) 9.6 - 11.4 (-11.5) µm; L’ = 10.6 µm; W = (8.6-) 8.9 - 10.7 µm; W’ = 9.9 µm; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.18 (-1.40); Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.12 (-1.15); Q’ = 1.08), hyaline, colorless, with walls thin or occasionally appearing slightly thickened in Melzer’s reagent, smooth, inamyloid, globose to subglobose, sometimes slightly adaxially flattened, occasionally with adaxial indentation; apiculus prominent and rather large (to 2.2 µm wide and sometimes height > 2.2 µm), cylindric, subapical to sublateral; contents guttulate; white in deposit.
Colombia: At 2460 - 2750+ m elev. Under Q. humboldtii. Costa Rica: At 1500 - 2880 m elev. Under Quercus or in forest with Quercus common or in experimental Quercus forest or in Quercus dominated forest or in dense stand of Quercus among moss and ferns or in Q. copeyensis dominated forest or with Q. seemannii or with Q. seemannii and Q. copeyensis. Honduras: Subgregarious, at 1800 m elev. Under Quercus.
COLOMBIA: ANTIOQUIA—Mpio. San Pedro - vereda "La Pulgarina," 30.v.1992 A. E. Franco-M. 896a (COL; NY). Mpio. Santa Rosa de Osos - vereda "El Chaquiro," Finca "La Española," prop. de Arcángel Pérez, 1.vi.1992 Carmen A. Franco-M. & A. E. Franco-M. [AEF-M 899] (COL; NY; RET 086-4); vereda "El Chaquiro," on the road from Santa Rosa de Osos to Aragon, near Llanos de Cuivá, 10.xi.1986 Ovrebo 2482 (paratype, HUA; paratype, NY; paratype, CSU), 14.xi.1986 R. E. Halling 5022 (holotype, HUA; isotype, NY; isotype, RET 043-3), 13.v.1987 R. E. Halling, G. M. Mueller & B. A. Strack [Mueller 2818] (paratype, F 1080753), 8.xi.1988 Franco-M. 104 (paratype, HUA ; paratype, NY), 12.vi.1990, Franco-M. 521 (paratype, HUA; paratype, NY), 22.vi.1990 Franco-M. 536 (paratype, HUA; paratype, NY) & 538 (paratype, HUA; paratype, NY).
BOYACÁ—Mpio. Arcabuco - unkn. loc., 16.iv.1992 A. E. Franco-M. 778 (COL; NY). Mpio. San Miguel de Sema - road from Simijacta to San Miguel de Sema, 9.v.1987 R. E. Halling 5246 (paratype, COL; paratype, NY).
NARIÑO—Mpio. La Florida - 27± km from Pasto, Hacienda "El Barranco," prop. F. Villareal, 11.v.1990 Franco-M. 444 (NY, PSO).
Mpio. Pasto - 8 km E of Chachagüí, bosque "El Común," 22.v.1990 Franco-M. 465 (NY, PSO);
vereda "La Josefina," km 17, road from Pasto to Chachagüí, 22.xi.1988 Franco-M. 193 (PSO), 9.v.1990 Franco-M. 427 (NY, PSO).
COSTA RICA: PUNTARENAS—Ctn. Coto Brus - Finca Las Alturas, Standford Biolological Field Station, tr. to Cerro Echandi [1700 m], 23.vii.1991 G. M. Mueller, B. A. Strack, P. Sanchey, J. Garcia & A. S. Methven [Mueller 4249] (F 1098939).
SAN JOSÉ—Ctn. Dota - Jaboncillo de Dota, 3.2 km from Interam. Hwy on rd. to San Gerardo de Dota [9°35’21” N/ 83°47’58” W, 2740 m], 24.vi.1995 Kris Shanks s.n. [Tulloss 6-24-95-E] (RET 336-10; USJ); San Gerardo de Dota no. 1, 5± km SW of Cerro de la Muerte, Albergue de Montaña Savegre (Cabinas Chacón) [9°33’2” N/ 83°48’27” W, 2200-2350 m], 26.vii.1992 B. A. Strack, L. D. Gómez, G. Hewson, & G. M. Mueller [Mueller 4403] (F 1102456), 8.viii.1993 G. M. Mueller 4582 (F 1110890), 6.xi.1993 G. M. Mueller 4612 (F 1110976), 7.xi.1993 R. E. Halling, G. M. Mueller, B. A. Strack, M. Mata, L. Umaña & A. E. Franco-M. [Franco-M. 1098] (NY), 24.xi.1993 R. E. Halling, M. Mata & A. E. Franco-M. [Franco-M. 1152] (NY), 21.vi.1995 Kris Shanks s.n. [Tulloss 6-21-95-L] (RET 333-8; USJ); R. E. Tulloss 6-21-95-C (RET 337-10; USJ);
San Gerardo de Dota no. 2, 500 m from Interam. Hwy. on rd. to San Gerardo de Dota [9°36’13” N/ 83°47’26” W,
3000 m], 23.vi.1995 Kris Shanks s.n. [Tulloss 6-23-95-F] (RET 330-7; USJ);
San Gerardo de Dota no. 4,
off Interam. Hwy., 2-3 km N of Cerro de la Muerte, rd. to San Gerardo de Dota, 24.vii.1992 B. A. Strack, J. Polishook, L. D. Gómez, G. Hewson, & G. M. Mueller [Mueller 4370] (F 1102423).
Ctn. Guadalupe - Alto de la Palma, 21.vii.1981 R. Singer B12404 (F 1050040, as "A. fulva").
Ctn. Perez Zeledón - Villa Mills, C.A.T.I.E. Experimental For. of Villa Mills [9°33’3” N/ 83°40’55” W, 2880 m], 28.vii.1991 G. M. Mueller, B. A. Strack, P. Sanchey, Jesus Garcia & A. S. Methven [Mueller 4278] (F 1098941), 8.xi.1993 R. E. Halling, G. M. Mueller, B. A. Strack, Juan Luis Mata, M. Mata, A. E. Franco-M. [Franco-M. 1103] (NY), R. E. Halling, G. M. Mueller, B. A. Strack, J. L. Mata, M. Mata, A. E. Franco-M. G. M. Mueller 4626 (F 1110990), 25.xi.1993 R. E Halling, M. Mata, L. Umaña, A. E. Franco-M. [Franco-M. 1156] (NY), 22.vi.1995 K. Shanks, R. E. Halling & R. E. Tulloss
[Tulloss 6-22-95-D] (RET 333-3; USJ).
HONDURAS: FRANCISCO MORAZAN—Tegucigalpa - Parq. Nac. La Tigre, Sendero Bosque Nublado, 4.vii.1991 G. M. Mueller, B. A. Strack, R. & M. Singer & R. Andino [Mueller 4102] (F 1098649), [Mueller 4125] (F 1098651 as "A. vaginata").
Note; Have to check this locality info. [Specimen has been id’d and data entered.] COSTA RICA: SAN JOSÉ—Ctn. Unkn. - 5 km NW of Cerro Buenavista, 26.vii.1992 B. A. Strack, L. D. Goméz, G. Hewson & G. M. Mueller 4404 (F 1102457).]
Among formally described taxa at the present time, A. fuligineodisca is the closest, phenetic, New World relative of A. fulva. At this time, these two species are the only members of Amanita stirps Fulva.
A sporograph comparison between the present species and A. fulva (brown figure) follows.
A sporograph comparison between the present species and A. amerifulva (orange figure) follows.
Franco-M. 427 and 465 are included here because they were not distinguishable anatomically from the holotype. However, the field descriptions and color transparencies accompanying the collections show a white, unchanging, saccate volva as well as a white stipe without orangish tints and bearing scattered brownish fibrils. Also, the paracresol spot test on Franco-M. 427 is the one which reacted positively for tyrosinase only in the stipe. Without support at the anatomical level for taxonomic differentiation, the collections in question are interpreted as evidence of variation within the species.
Collected in Antioquia, Halling 6160 (HUA; NY) appears to be assignable to this species; however, no mature spores were found on its lamellae.
—R. E. Tulloss
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Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling
"Mesoamerican Orange-Brown Ringless Amanita"
1. Amanita fuligineodisca, Cordillera Talamanca, Costa Rica.
Each spore data set is intended to comprise a set of measurements from a single specimen made by a single observer;
and explanations prepared for this site talk about specimen-observer pairs associated with each data set.
Combining more data into a single data set is non-optimal because it obscures observer differences
(which may be valuable for instructional purposes, for example) and may obscure instances in which
a single collection inadvertently contains a mixture of taxa.